Introduction   In this era of globalization, both the manufacturing and service industries face the challenge of meeting and exceeding the customers’ expectations. As far as the employees are concerned, all the routine activities they perform on the job on a day-to-day basis constitutes “work” for them. A collection of such activities (work) that delivers the final output and outcome to the customers is often called a ‘process’. Say for example in a McDonald outlet, while one of the employees makes the burger, the other services the customer and yet another collects the money. As far as these employees are concerned, it is the “work” they do, day in and day out, without really realizing that they are one of the links in the chain of activities called a “process”. In manufacturing parlance, we call this as ‘process capability’, and is often expressed as Cp or Cpk. It indicates the capability of a manufacturing process to deliver a defect free product or a...

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